# Independence on the Abelian Projection of Monopole Condensation in QCD

###### Abstract

It is proven that dual superconductivity of QCD vacuum in the confining phase is an intrinsic property, independent on the choice of the abelian projection used to define the monopoles.

###### pacs:

12.38.Aw, 14.80.HvDual superconductivity of the vacuum was proposed in the early times of QCD as a mechanism for color confinement1 ; 2 . Here dual means interchange of electric and magnetic with respect to ordinary superconductivity. The basic idea is that, in the confining phase, magnetic charges condense in the vacuum, and the chromoelectric field acting between two colored particles is channeled into Abrikosov flux tubes by dual Meissner effect, giving an energy proportional to the distance, , or confinement. Above the deconfining transition this phenomenon should disappear.

When trying to make this idea more precise, however, it looks less unique than expected. A procedure known as Abelian Projection3 is needed to define monopoles, which implies the choice of an operator , transforming in the adjoint representation of the gauge group, say SU(N) . After diagonalization of in color space by a gauge transformation (Abelian Projection), residual gauge symmetries exist, whose magnetic charges are conserved. Dual superconductivity means Higgs breaking of these magnetic symmetries. A priori monopoles defined by different abelian projections, i.e. by different choices of the operator , are not related to each other. Indeed their number and locations are different when observed in any given field configuration. The question is then what monopoles do condense in the vacuum to produce dual superconductivity. One possibility is that some abelian projection is privileged (see ref4 for a review). Another extreme possibility is that all abelian projections are physically equivalent, as guessed in ref3 .

The mechanism of confinement by dual superconductivity has been investigated on the lattice5 ; 6 ; 7 , by studying the expectation value of an operator , which creates a monopole in some abelian projection. The expectation is that in the confined phase ( Higgs phase) its vev is non-zero signalling monopole condensation; in the deconfining phase ,the Hilbert space being superselected with respect to magnetic charge. Around , . is called a disorder parameter in the language of statistical mechanics, being the order parameter of the strong coupling (disordered) confining phase. What is found by numerical simulations is that indeed at , at , for SU(2), for SU(3), and that is independent of the choice of the abelian projection5 ; 6 ; 7 within errors.

In this letter we show that the independence of on the abelian projection follows from gauge invariance, and that it also holds for any correlator of creation operators of monopoles. It follows that dual superconductivity of the confining phase is an intrinsic property, independent of the choice of the abelian projection, and so is the coulomb nature of the deconfined phase.

The key quantity to define the abelian projection corresponding to an operator in the adjoint representation is ’tHooft ’s field strength tensor7h

(1) |

is gauge invariant and color singlet. The notation is standard

are the group generators, with . For particular choices of the tensor in eq(1) becomes an abelian field strength in the gauge in which is diagonal.

For gauge group this happens for any operator with . In that case indeed7g bilinear terms in cancel between the two terms of eq(1), and

(2) |

In the gauge in which , or , and

(3) |

The generic operator can be written with

(4) |

is the abelian projection, and the residual has as a generator in the abelian projected gauge.

The operator which creates a monopole at is5 ; 7a

(5) |

where is the electric field operator,and is the classical vector potential produced at by a monopole sitting at , in the transverse gauge . The operator defined by eq.(5) is nothing but the translation of the field by in the abelian projected gauge. In the Schroedinger picture

(6) |

since is the conjugate momentum to . More generally any configuration of monopoles and antimonopoles can be added at by an appropriate choice of . By use of eq.(4) and of the cyclicity of the trace the operator can be written

(7) |

The unitary transformation is what distinguishes one abelian projection from another.

The correlator of any number of monopole fields is given by

(8) |

. A change of variables leaves the measure invariant and replaces by in the expression for eq(7). This proves that the correlator eq.(8) is projection independent: whatever the choice of all the ’s can be replaced by

(9) |

which is projection independent. In particular is projection independent, and such is the Higgs nature of the confined phase and the Coulomb nature of the deconfined one.

For generic the argument is analogous. The choices for in eq.(1), which lead to eq.(2) can be identified8 : there are independent possibilities with arbitrary and

(10) |

Any operator in the adjoint representation is of the form with a gauge transformation. Since the are a complete basis for diagonal matrices . In the abelian projected gauge the field corresponding to a given will be

(11) |

Only the diagonal part of contributes. can be expanded in terms of a complete set of diagonal matrices , which obey the orthonormality relations ,

(12) |

The abelian fields produced by the abelian projection correspond to the generators eq.(12). The operator which creates a monopole of the a-th is then

(13) |

or

(14) |

Again in the correlator of any number of ’s the unitary transformation can be reabsorbed by a gauge transformation which leaves the measure invariant,proving the independence on , i.e. on the abelian projection.

All that can be trivially translated into the regularized version of the theory on the lattice5 ; 6 ; 7 . In fact in ref.7 a numerical comparison was done between corresponding to a number of abelian projections, and the of the form eq.(14), considered as an average on abelian projections, and they were equal within errors: we can now say that this only means that our numerical procedure was correct.

In conclusion the correlators of monopole fields are abelian projection independent, and such should be the field theory reconstructed from them. In particular dual superconductivity of the vacuum is an intrinsic,projection independent, property.

###### Acknowledgements.

Thanks are due to M.D’Elia. L. Del Debbio and to G.Paffuti for helpful discussions. This work was partially supported by MIUR project Teoria e fenomenologia delle particelle elementari.## References

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